Site : The place where a building or a settlement develops is called a site. The natural conditions for selection of an ideal site are –

  • Favorable climate
  • Availability of water
  • Suitable land
  • Fertile land

Settlements: are places where people build their homes. They can be permanent or temporary.

Temporary Settlements: Settlements which are occupied for a short time are called temporary settlements. People in these settlements practice hunting, gathering, shifting cultivation and transhumance.

Transhumance: It is a seasonal movement of people. People who rear animals move in search of new pastures according to changes in seasons.

Settlements can be rural or urban.

Rural settlements:

  • The villages are rural settlements where people are engaged in activities like agriculture, fishing, forestry, crafts work and trading etc..
  • They can be compact or scattered.

Urban settlements:

  • The towns are small and the cities are larger urban settlements.
  • In urban areas the people are engaged in manufacturing, trading and services.

Transport: Transport is the means by which people and goods move. The four major means of transport are roadways, railways, waterways and airways.


  • They can be metalled (pucca) and unmetalled (kutcha)
  • Manali – Leh highway in the Himalayan Mountains is one of the highest roadways in the world.
  • Roads built underground are called subways/under paths.


  • Indian railway network is the largest in Asia.
  • The Trans-Siberian Railway is the longest railway system connecting St.Petersburg in Western Russia to Vladivostok in the Pacific coast


  • Waterways are the cheapest for carrying heavy and bulky goods over long distances.
  • They are mainly of two typesinland waterways and sea routes.
  • Some of the important inland waterways are the Ganga-Brahmaputra river system, the Great lakes in the N.America and the river Nile in Africa.
  • Some of the important ports of the world are Singapore and Mumbai in Asia, New York, Los Angeles in N.America, Rio de Janerio in S.America, Durban and Cape Town in Africa, Sydney in Australia, London and Rotterdam in Europe.


  • The fastest way of transport developed.
  • It is the only mode of transport to reach the most remote and distant areas where there are no roads and railways.
  • Some of the important airports are Delhi, Mumbai, New York, London, Paris, Frankfurt and Cairo


  • Is the process of conveying message to others.
  • Through newspaper, radio and television we can communicate with a large number of people. They are therefore called mass media.
  • Satellites have helped in oil exploration, survey of forest, underground water, mineral wealth, weather forecast and disaster warning.