• India is bounded by the Himalayas in the North, the Arabian Sea in the west, the Bay of Bengal in the East and the Indian Ocean in the south.
  • Peninsula : Peninsula is a piece of land which is surrounded by water on three sides of it.
  • Area of India – 3.28 million square kilometers
  • The North South extent of India is 3,200 kms
  • The East West extent of India is 2,900 kms
  • The Tropic of cancer (23 1/20N) passes through the middle of India.
  • From north to south, the mainland extends between 804’ N and 3706’N latitudes.
  • From west to east, the mainland extends between 6807’ E and 97025’E longitudes.
  • The longitude 82030’E is called the Indian Standard Time or the Standard Meridian of India.
  • Seven countries share boundary with India : China, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh.
  • Tributary: A river or stream which contributes its water to a main river by discharging it into main river from either side.

India is marked by a diversity of physical features such as mountains, plateaus, plains, coasts and islands.


  • The northern most of Himalayas are the Greater Himalayas or Himadri. Some of the world’s highest peaks are in this range.
  • The middle Himalayas or the Himachal has some of the beautiful hill stations.
  • The southern part of the Himalayas are the Lesser Himalayas or the Shiwaliks.

Northern Plains:

  • These lie to the south of the Himalayas.
  • These are formed by the alluvial deposits laid down by the rivers – the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra and their tributaries.

Great Indian Desert:

  • In the western part of India lies the Great Indian desert.
  • It is a dry, hot and sandy stretch of land.

Peninsular plateau:

  • To the south of northern plains lies the Peninsular plateau. It is triangular in shape.
  • Aravali hills, one of the oldest ranges of the world, border it on the north-west side.
  • The Vindhyas and the Satpuras are the important ranges.
  • The rivers Narmada and Tapi flow through these ranges. These are the west flowing rivers.
  • The Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats border the plateau.
  • The Western Ghats are almost continuous and the Eastern Ghats are broken and uneven.
  • To the west of the Western Ghats and the East of the Eastern Ghats lie the Coastal plains.


  • Two groups of islands also form part of India.
  • Lakshadweep Islands are located in the Arabian Sea.
  • The Andaman and the Nicobar islands lie to the southeast of the Indian mainland in the Bay of Bengal.