Natural vegetation is generally classified into three broad categories as follows:
- Forests: which grow where temperature and rainfall are plentiful to support a tree cover. Depending upon these factors, dense and open forests are grown.
- Grasslands: which grow in the region of moderate rain.
- Shrubs: Thorny shrubs and scrubs grown in the dry region.
The changes in the type of natural vegetation occur mainly because of the changes in the climatic condition.
Tropical Evergreen Forests:
- Also called as tropical rain forests.
- Occur in the regions near to equator and close to the tropics.
- Hardwood trees like rosewood, ebony, mahogany are common here.
Tropical deciduous forests:
- Are the monsoon forests found in large part of India, N. Australia and in Central America.
- The hardwood trees found in these forests are sal, teak, neem and shisham.
- Tigers, lions, elephants, langoors and monkeys are the common animals of these regions.
Temperate Evergreen forests:
- These are located in the mid-latitudinal coastal region. They are commonly found along the eastern margin of the continents, e.g., In South east USA, S.China and in SE Brazil.
- They comprise both hard and soft wood trees like oak, pine, eucalyptus, etc.
Temperate Deciduous Forests:
- These are found in the NE part of USA, China, New Zealand, Chile and also found in the coastal regions of W.Europe.
- The common trees are oak, ash, beech etc.
- Deer, foxes, wolves are the commonly found animals. Birds like pheasants, monals are also found here.
- The west and south west margins of the continents have this vegetation.
- Mostly found in the areas around the Mediterranean sea in Europe, Africa and Asia, hence the name.
- These regions are marked for hot dry summers and mild rainy winters.
- Citrus fruits such as oranges, figs, olives and grapes are commonly cultivated.
- These regions are known as ‘Orchards of the world’ for their fruit cultivation.
- These forests are seen in the higher latitudes.
- These are also called as Taiga.
- The trees are tall, softwood evergreen trees. The woods of these trees are very useful for making pulp, which is used for manufacturing paper and newsprint.
- Match boxes and packing boxes are also made from softwood.
- Chir, pine, cedar are the important variety of trees in these forests.
- Silver fox, mink, polar bear are the common animals found here.
- These occur on either side of the equator and extend till the tropics.
- This vegetation grows in the areas of moderate to low amount of rainfall. Ex: Savanna grasslands of Africa
- Elephants, Zebras, giraffes, deer, leopards are common here.
- Tropical Grasslands in East Africa are called Savannahs.
- They are called Campos in Brazil
- They are called Llanos in Venezuela
- These are found in the mid-latitudinal zones in the interior part of the continents.
- Wild buffaloes, bisons, antelopes are common here.
- The temperate grasslands of Argentina are called Pampas.
- They are called Prairie in N.America
- They are called Veld in S.Africa
- They are called Steppe in C.Asia
- They are called Down in Australia.
- The vegetation cover is scarce because of scanty rain and scorching heat.
- This is extremely cold.
- The growth of vegetation is very limited here.
- Only mosses, lichens and very small shrubs are found here. It grows only during the very short summer.
- This is found in the polar areas of Europe, Asia and N.America.
- Seal, walruses, musk-oxen, Arctic owl, Polar bear and snow foxes are some of the animals found here.