Cyber attacks are cheaper, more convenient, and less risky than physical attacks. They are unconstrained by geography and distance, they are not physically dangerous for the attacker, and it is more difficult to identify and prosecute the culprits of a cyber attack. They are easy to replicate.

            Cyber Security is the branch of security dealing with digital or information technology. Cyber Security is an essential component in the protection of any nation.

What is Cyber Security?

        Cyber Security, also referred to as information technology security, focuses on protecting computers, networks, programs and data from unintended or unauthorized access, change or destruction.

Why Cyber Security is important?

             Governments, military, corporations, financial institutions, hospitals and other businesses collect, process and store a great deal of confidential information on computers and transmit that data across networks to other computers. With the growing volume and sophistication of cyber attacks, ongoing attention is required to protect sensitive business and personal information, as well as safeguard national security.

There can be four major areas while dealing with cyber security issues:

  • Deterrence – Focus on the use of multilateral cyber-crime legislation: Multilateral initiatives to deter the malicious use of cyberspace.
  • Prevention – Design and use of more secure systems, better security management and the promotion of more security mechanisms.
  • Detection – Cooperative policing mechanisms and early warning of attacks.
  • Reaction – or the design of stronger information infrastructures, crisis management programs, and policing and justice efforts.

Government of India Initiatives on Cyber Security

            In line with the recommendations of the Inter Departmental Information Security Task Force (ISTF), the following major initiatives have been taken by the Government:

  • Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In) to respond to cyber attacks.
  • Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) to support implementation of IT Act and promote use of Digital Signatures.
  • R & D via the support to premier Academic and Public Sector Institutions.
  • Mandatory complice with ISO 27001
  • National Cyber Security Policy 2013
  • Empanelment of Security Auditors.
  • Nationwide Information Security Education and Awareness Programs.

National Cyber Security Policy, 2013

Salient Features

  1. It ropes in the private sector and envisages an investment of $1 billion from it. Their help will be sought in research and training of manpower.
  2. It will also lay grounds for international cooperation with countries such as the US and Israel.
  3. It clarifies the role of various government agencies engaged in cyber security. CERT-In will function as an umbrella organization.
  4. The policy proposes an agency and a contingency plan to handle cyber attacks on vital installations and critical infrastructure.
  5. It provides for government monitoring of internet communications.
  6. It calls to promote awareness, information sharing and capacity building.
  7. Cyber security policy 2013 sets up National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Agency.


The constitution implies that India is a secular state. This means that the state and religion are separate, and the state does not discriminate among citizens on grounds of religion.

What is Secularism?

The Indian constitution allows individuals the freedom to live by their religious beliefs and practices as they interpret these. In keeping with this idea of religious freedom for all, India also adopted a strategy of separating the power of religion and the power of the state.

Secularism refers to this separation of religion from the state.

Importance of separating religion from the state:

–           Important aspect of secularism is its separation of religion from state power.

–          Important for a country to function democratically

–          Any form of domination based on religion is in violation of the rights that a democratic society guarantees to each and every citizen irrespective of their religion. Therefore, the tyranny of the majority and the violation of fundamental rights that can result is one reason why it is important to separate the state and religion in democratic societies.

–          To protect the freedom of individuals to exit from their religion, embrace another religion or have the freedom to interpret religious teachings differently.

Indian Secularism:

According to the constitution, only a secular state can realize its objectives to ensure the following:

–          One religious community shouldn’t dominate another

–          Some members do not dominate other members of the same religious community

–          The state does not enforce any particular religion nor take away the religious freedom of individuals

Note: Unlike the strict separation between religion and the state in American secularism, the Indian state can intervene in religious affairs.