Science & Technology

What is Hepatitis E?

Hepatitis E is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis E virus: a non-enveloped positive-sense, single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus.

The Hepatitis E virus is transmitted mainly through contaminated drinking water. It is usually a self-limiting infection and resolves within 4-6 weeks. Occasionally, a fulminate form of hepatitis develops acute liver failure, which can lead to death.

Globally, there are approximately 20 million incidents of hepatitis E infections every year.

What are Ocean floor polymetallic sulphides? Where is the largest occurrence of deposits reported?

Polymetallic suphides present on the ocean floor are typically composed of iron pyrite, but contain varying proportions of pyrrhotite, pyrite/marcasite, sphalerite/wurtzite, Chalcopyrite, bornite, isocubanite, and galena. Copper and zinc are the most likely metals to be recovered, but some deposits exhibit significant gold (0-20 ppm) and silver (0-1200 ppm) grades as well.

These are principally found along the earth’s major tectonic belts. Upto 40% of the known deposits occur at shallower depths in back-arc basins and on submarine volcanic ridges within 200 nautical miles of the coast.

What is ELISA? What is it used for?

ELISA is an abbreviation for “Enzyme – linked immune sorbent assay.”

An ELISA test uses components of the immune system and chemicals to detect immune responses in the body. The ELISA test involves an enzyme (a protein that catalyzes a biochemical reaction). It also involves an antibody or antigen (immunologic molecules).

ELISA tests are widely utilized to detect substances that have antigenic properties, primarily proteins (as opposed to small molecules and ions such as glucose and potassium). The substances detected by ELISA tests include hormones, bacterial antigens and antibodies.

What is HIV? What does it causes?

HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency virus. HIV can destroy so many of our CD4 cells that our body can’t fight infections and diseases anymore. When that happens, HIV infection can lead to AIDS, the final stage of HIV infection.

What is e-mail?

Short for electronic mail, e-mail or email is a message that may contain text, files, images, or other attachments sent through a network to a specified individual or group of individuals.

P-8A Poseidon:

The P-8A Poseidon is a long-range anti-submarine warfare, anti-surface warfare, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance aircraft. It possesses an advanced mission system that ensures maximum interoperability in the future battle space. Capable of broad-area, maritime and littoral operations.

Biometric ATMs:

Biometric ATMs are self-service cash machines that use a biometric measure to identify customers and allow them to withdraw cash. The biometric check may be the only customer identifier used, or it may be used in conjunction with another format, such as a payment card, a mobile device or an additional security credential, such as a PIN. The biometric measures used will generally include palm or finger vein print biometrics, although they may also include other functionalities such as iris recognition.

Extra-vehicular Activity (EVA):

EVA is any activity done by an astronaut or cosmonaut outside a spacecraft beyond the Earth’s appreciable atmosphere. The term most commonly applies to a spacewalk made outside a craft orbiting Earth, but also has applied to lunar surface exploration (moonwalks).