• A MAP is a representation or a drawing of the earth’s surface or a part of it drawn on a flat surface according to a scale. Maps are of different types.
  • Physical maps : Maps showing natural features of the earth such as mountains, plateaus, plains, rivers, oceans etc. are called physical or relief maps.
  • Political maps: Maps showing cities, towns and villages, and different countries and states of the world with their boundaries are called political maps.
  • Thematic maps: Some maps focus on specific information; such as road maps, rainfall maps, maps showing distribution of forests, industries etc. are known as thematic maps.
  • There are three components of maps – distance, direction and symbol.
  • A Scale is the ratio between the actual distance on the ground and the distance shown on the map.
  • When large areas like continents or countries are to be shown on a paper, then small scale is used. It is called a small scale map.
  • When a small area like village or town is to be shown on a paper, then large scale is used. It is called a large scale map.

#     Large scale maps give more information than small scale maps.

  • The directions on the map are North, South, East and West. They are called Cardinal points. The direction of a place can be found out with the help of a
  • Conventional symbols are used to show different features on a map.
  • A Sketch is a rough drawing which is drawn without a scale, and this is called a sketch map.
  • A plan is a drawing of a small area on a large scale. These are drawings drawn to a scale.

Beti Bachao Beti Padhao – Save Girl Child, Educate Girl Child

“An educated Girl will stay healthy, save money, build a business, empower her community, lift her country and change the world.”

Background: The current census (2011) data has revealed a declining trend in Child Sex Ratio (CSR) between 0-6 years with an all time low of 919. India has not improved gender indicators especially related to Sex Ratio and CSR. The issue of declining CSR is a major indicator of women disempowerment as it begins before birth, manifests in gender biased sex selection and elimination and continues in various forms of discrimination towards girl child after birth in fulfilling her health, nutrition and education needs. The practice of sex selective elimination of the female fetus due to easy availability and affordability of medical diagnostic tools has been a critical influencer of the skewed sex ratio. Further, there is little doubt that strong socio-cultural and religious biases, preferences for sons in almost all Indian communities has also shaped societal attitudes towards girls.

Given the complexity of the issue, there is a need for coordinated and multi sectoral convergent action including Information Education and Communication (IEC) and Behavior Change Communication (BCC) campaigns and community mobilization initiatives towards improving CSR, promoting the value of the girl and highlighting the importance of empowering her with education. A campaign like the Beti Bachao Beti Padhao can not only draw the attention of the masses to a grave concern like declining CSR but also lead to change the mindsets towards empowering daughters through education.

Beti Bachao Beti Padhao: Realizing the gravity of the issue, it was highlighted in the Address to the Joint Session of the Parliament by the President in June, 2014 and thereafter, in the Budget speech of the Government. Since coordinated and convergent efforts are needed to ensure survival, protection and empowerment of the girl child, Government has announced Beti Bacho Beti Padhao initiative. This has been launched by the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi at Panipat, Haryana on Jan 22, 2015. The Government has decided that the Ministry of Women and Child Development shall be the Nodal Ministry for implementing this joint Scheme which will be implemented in collaboration with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and Ministry of Human Resource Development.


The objectives of this initiative are:

  • Prevention of gender biased sex selective elimination
  • Ensuring survival and protection of the girl child
  • Ensuring education and participation of the girl child

Critical Components:

The Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP) initiative has two major components.

(i) Media Campaign and

(ii) Multi-sectoral action in 100 selected districts (as a pilot) with adverse CSR, covering all States and UTs

  • Effective implementation of Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act (PCPNDT) is a critical and non-negotiable aspect of this scheme.
  • Empowering the girl child through education and creating an enabling environment that provides equal access to education, health, employment/skill development etc. is another critical component.
  • Enhancing the value of the girl child through awareness generation is the other critical component. The Media Campaign, geared towards achieving this, would underline the need to use communication that encourages equal value of the girls and emphasize that she is not a liability.
  • Gender Equality: BBBP also highlights the need for gender equality enshrined in the Constitution of India and brings out how neglect of girls and discrimination throughout her life cycle leads to an unequal status for the girls. It also aims to break myths about roles of men and women in society so that negative attitudes and behaviors steeped in patriarchy changed.

Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM)

“Everyone must be his own Scavenger”                                                                         -Mahatma Gandhi

Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM)

It is a joint mission of the Ministry of Urban Development and the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation (Rural). The Mission was launched by the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi on 2.10.2014 to fulfill Mahatma Gandhi’s vision of Clean India and to ensure hygiene, waste management and sanitation across the nation, which will be India’s tribute to Mahatma Gandhi on his 150th birth anniversary to be celebrated in the year 2019.

The program will be implemented two sub-missions by the Urban Development Ministry (Urban areas) and Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation (Rural).

Swachh Bharat Mission for Urban Areas:


The overall goal of the National Urban Sanitation Policy is to transform Urban India into community – driven, totally sanitized, healthy and livable cities and towns. The Swachh Bharat Mission strives to achieve this goal.

Objectives of SBM (Urban):

The objectives of the Mission are:

  • Eliminate open defecation.
  • Conversion of insanitary toilets to pour flush toilets.
  • Eradication of manual scavenging
  • 100% collection and scientific processing/disposal/reuse/recycle of Municipal solid waste.
  • To bring about a behavioral change in people regarding healthy sanitation practices.
  • Generate awareness among the citizens about sanitation and its linkages with public health.
  • Strengthening of urban local bodies to design, execute and operate systems.
  • To create enabling environment for private sector participation in Capital expenditure and Operation and Maintenance expenditure (O&M).

SBM aims to achieve these objectives of providing sanitation and household toilet facilities for all 4041 statutory towns in the country. These towns are home to 31% of the country’s population or about 377 million people. The numbers are expected to go up to 600 million by 2031.

Components of SBM (Urban):

The Mission has the following components:

  • Provision of household toilets
  • Community toilets
  • Public toilets
  • Solid waste management
  • Information Education and Communication (IEC) and Public Awareness
  • Capacity Building and Administrative and Other Expenses.

Swachh Bharat Mission (Rural):

A direct relationship exists between water, sanitation, health, nutrition, and human well being. Though a lot of work has been done in the field of rural sanitation in the past decade under Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) in the country, sanitation coverage, which ought to be a way of life to safeguard health, is still inadequate. While the programs like TSC, Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBC) has been successful to some extent, the fact that there are still a large number of rural households without access to safe sanitation facilities, which is a issue which needs to be tackled on war footing in a time bound manner, the SBM (Rural) has been launched, which aims at attaining a 100% Open Defecation Free India by 2019.

Objectives of the SBM (Rural):

The objectives are as follows:

  • Bring about an improvement in the general quality of life in the rural areas.
  • Accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas to achieve the vision of Swachh Bharat by 2019 with all Gram Panchayats in the country attaining Nirmal status.
  • Motivate communities and Panchayati Raj Institutions promoting sustainable sanitation facilities through awareness creation and health education.
  • Encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies for ecologically safe and sustainable sanitation.
  • Develop community managed environmental sanitation systems focusing on solid and liquid waste management for overall cleanliness in the rural areas.

Components of SBM (Rural):

The components are as under:

  • Provision of individual household latrines.
  • Construction of community sanitary complexes
  • Assistance to production centers of sanitary materials and Rural Sanitary Marts
  • Funds for solid and liquid waste management.
  • Provision for IEC
  • Provision for Administrative cost


Good Governance:

  • It is a genuinely democracy – intensifying concept – to make public administration more open, transparent and accountable.


  • “Governance is a more encompassing phenomenon than government. It embraces governmental institutions but it also subsumes informal, non-governmental mechanisms whereby those persons and organizations within its purview move ahead, satisfy their needs and fulfill their wants… Governance is thus a system of rule that is as dependent on inter-subjective meanings as on formally sanctioned constitution and charter… it is possible to conceive of governance without government – of regulatory mechanisms in a sphere of activity which function effectively even though they are not endowed with formal authority.                                                                                                                                                                                                         -Rosenau


   “The capacity to get things done without the legal competence to command that they be done.”

  • Governance is more a network of multiple agencies and organizations than a fixed ‘government’ agency or department.
  • Governance stands for establishment, operation and networking of social institutions. Concretely, it manifests itself in formal rules and regulations, decision-making procedures and programmatic activities that serve to define social practices.
  • In 1989, the concept of ‘governance’ was for the first time highlighted in a World Bank document on Sub-Saharan Africa. By good governance was meant, at that time, sound development management.
  • Four key dimensions identified in this context were:
    • Public sector management
    • Accountability
    • Legal framework for development; and
    • Information and transparency.
  • Governance is defined as the manner in which power is exercised in the management of a country’s economic and social resources for development. – World Bank.
  • Three distinct aspects are identified in the conceptualization of ‘governance’:
    • The form of political regime (parliamentary or presidential, military or civilian or democratic)
    • The process by which authority is exercised in the management of a country’s economic and social resources; and
    • The capacity of governments to design, formulate and implement policies and in general, to discharge government functions.
  • Governance is a continuum and not necessarily unidirectional.
  • The key components of ‘governance’ were identified as:
    • Legitimacy of government;
    • Accountability of political and official elements of government;
    • Respect for human rights and the Rule of Law (including individual and group rights and security, a legal framework for economic and social activity and participation).