Cyber attacks are cheaper, more convenient, and less risky than physical attacks. They are unconstrained by geography and distance, they are not physically dangerous for the attacker, and it is more difficult to identify and prosecute the culprits of a cyber attack. They are easy to replicate.

            Cyber Security is the branch of security dealing with digital or information technology. Cyber Security is an essential component in the protection of any nation.

What is Cyber Security?

        Cyber Security, also referred to as information technology security, focuses on protecting computers, networks, programs and data from unintended or unauthorized access, change or destruction.

Why Cyber Security is important?

             Governments, military, corporations, financial institutions, hospitals and other businesses collect, process and store a great deal of confidential information on computers and transmit that data across networks to other computers. With the growing volume and sophistication of cyber attacks, ongoing attention is required to protect sensitive business and personal information, as well as safeguard national security.

There can be four major areas while dealing with cyber security issues:

  • Deterrence – Focus on the use of multilateral cyber-crime legislation: Multilateral initiatives to deter the malicious use of cyberspace.
  • Prevention – Design and use of more secure systems, better security management and the promotion of more security mechanisms.
  • Detection – Cooperative policing mechanisms and early warning of attacks.
  • Reaction – or the design of stronger information infrastructures, crisis management programs, and policing and justice efforts.

Government of India Initiatives on Cyber Security

            In line with the recommendations of the Inter Departmental Information Security Task Force (ISTF), the following major initiatives have been taken by the Government:

  • Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In) to respond to cyber attacks.
  • Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) to support implementation of IT Act and promote use of Digital Signatures.
  • R & D via the support to premier Academic and Public Sector Institutions.
  • Mandatory complice with ISO 27001
  • National Cyber Security Policy 2013
  • Empanelment of Security Auditors.
  • Nationwide Information Security Education and Awareness Programs.

National Cyber Security Policy, 2013

Salient Features

  1. It ropes in the private sector and envisages an investment of $1 billion from it. Their help will be sought in research and training of manpower.
  2. It will also lay grounds for international cooperation with countries such as the US and Israel.
  3. It clarifies the role of various government agencies engaged in cyber security. CERT-In will function as an umbrella organization.
  4. The policy proposes an agency and a contingency plan to handle cyber attacks on vital installations and critical infrastructure.
  5. It provides for government monitoring of internet communications.
  6. It calls to promote awareness, information sharing and capacity building.
  7. Cyber security policy 2013 sets up National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Agency.


Definition : According to Tisne, Broadly speaking, accountability refers to the process of holding actors responsible for their actions. More specifically, it is the concept that individuals, agencies and organizations (public, private and civil society) are held responsible for executing their powers according to a certain standard (whether set mutually or not).

The responsibility of public officials for the action of their office, so that the actions are in accordance to the mandate of constitution of the office, lawful powers of the government. By general consensus, accountability ideally involves both answerability – the responsibility of duty – bearers to provide information and justification about their actions – and enforceability – the possibility of penalties or consequences for failing to answer accountability claims.

Features of Accountability:

  • Accountability is always a post-facto phenomenon, because the official will be liable only after committing a particular act.
  • Is an organizational imperative or necessity, because it helps in the lawful exercise of state power and creates basis of performance of public officials in terms of goals of organizations.
  • As a feature of public administration, is strengthened by system of punitive actions in case of wrong-doing.
  • Integral to administrative responsibility, because the entire administrative machinery is answerable to public.
  • Makes administrative machinery achievement oriented, it creates a motivational influence.
  • Is responsible for efficient usage of organizational resources including its financial resources to realize its goals. Also lawful use of public funds is guaranteed.
  • Ensures maintenance of proper intra-governmental and inter-governmental relations.

There are two types of accountability in a democracy.

  • Horizontal Accountability: Institutions of state to check other institutions of state judiciary. Acts as check against misuse of powers by executive legislature against judiciary.
    • Horizontal accountability protects democracy and democratic institutions and principles
  • Vertical Accountability: Accountability of all organizations of the government to the people. Direct accountability of people by grievance redressal scheme via citizen government groups, media etc.
    • Vertical accountability ensures rights of people are protected.

Purposes of civil services accountability including administrative accountability:

  • Ensures public policies are made in the best interest of the nation or public
  • Ensures timely commissioning of projects and timely delivery of public services.
  • Set standards of performance and evaluate whether administrative machinery is able to achieve these standards.
  • To reduce to a minimum of the exercise of discretionary power and the discretionary power is transparent, fair and meets standards of equity.
  • To make open and transparent the government as far as possible.

Points of accountability:

  • Parliament via parliament to people.
  • Financial accountability, accountable to the audit machinery of state and also certain institutions like public accounts committee.
  • Accountability to vigilance institutions, primarily to deal with corruption, favoritism etc. Eg: CBI, Central Vigilance Commissions, courts etc.
  • Social Accountability: is to engage civil societies by state so that services are demand-driven rather than supply-driven, and where people are empowered to external accountability from service providers, and they are accountable for defective services provided.
  • Accountability to judiciary where the judiciary acts as a watch-dog of the constitution and other democratic institutions by PIL, judicial activism etc.

# Social Accountability: can be defined as an approach towards building accountability that relies on civic engagement, i.e., in which it is ordinary citizens and/or civil society organizations who participate directly or indirectly in exacting accountability.

This is primarily confined to socio-economic developmental programs of the state but not necessarily to the administrative programs of the state. Also related to programs like state education, environment projects.

Social accountability as a means to certain ends can be summarized by the following:

  • Social accountability improves the quality of governance.
  • Social accountability contributes to increased development effectiveness.
  • Social accountability initiatives can lead to empowerment.

# Public Interest Litigation (PIL) : is litigation for the protection of the public interest. In Indian law, Article 32 of the Indian constitution contains a tool which directly joints the public with judiciary. A PIL may be introduced in a court of law by the court itself (suomoto), rather than the aggrieved party or another third party.


  • Weather is about day to day changes in the atmosphere. It includes changes in temperature, rainfall and sunshine.

Broadly, the major seasons recognized in India are:

  • Cold Weather Season (Winter) December to February
  • Hot Weather Season (Summer) March to May
  • South West Monsoon Season (Rainy) June to September
  • Season of Retreating Monsoon (Autumn) October and November.

# Hot and dry winds called Loo blow during the day in the Hot Weather Season.

South West Monsoon Season:

  • This season is marked by the onset and advance of monsoon.
  • The winds blow from the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea towards the land. They carry moisture with them.
  • When these winds strike the mountain barriers, rainfall occurs.

Season of Retreating Monsoons or Autumn:

  • Winds move backward from the mainland to the Bay of Bengal.
  • The southern parts of India, particularly Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh receive rainfall in this season.

Climate: Climate is about the average weather condition, which have been measured over many years.

  • The climate of India has broadly been described as Monsoon type.
  • Due to India’s location in the tropical region, most of the rain is brought by monsoon winds.


  • The climate of a place is affected by its location, altitude, distance from the sea, and relief.
  • Due to varied climatic conditions, India has a wide range of natural vegetation.

Vegetation of India can be divided into five types. They are:

  • Tropical Evergreen Forests or Tropical Rain Forest: They occur in the areas which receive heavy rainfall. Important trees found in these forests are Mahagony, ebony and rosewood.
  • Tropical Deciduous Forests or Monsoon Forests: Important trees of these forests are sal, teak, peepal, neem and shisham.
  • Thorny bushes: Plants are like Cactus, Khair, Babool and Keekar.
  • Mountain Vegetation: The trees are coniferous having broad bases and conical tops. Important species of trees are the pine, chir and deodar.
  • Mangrove forests: These are grown in the saline water. Example: Sunderbans.


  • Gir forest in Gujarat is the home of Asiatic lions.
  • Forests of Assam are the home of the elephants and one-horned rhinoceroses.
  • Camels and wild asses are found in the Great Indian desert and the Rann of Kuchch respectively.


  • India is bounded by the Himalayas in the North, the Arabian Sea in the west, the Bay of Bengal in the East and the Indian Ocean in the south.
  • Peninsula : Peninsula is a piece of land which is surrounded by water on three sides of it.
  • Area of India – 3.28 million square kilometers
  • The North South extent of India is 3,200 kms
  • The East West extent of India is 2,900 kms
  • The Tropic of cancer (23 1/20N) passes through the middle of India.
  • From north to south, the mainland extends between 804’ N and 3706’N latitudes.
  • From west to east, the mainland extends between 6807’ E and 97025’E longitudes.
  • The longitude 82030’E is called the Indian Standard Time or the Standard Meridian of India.
  • Seven countries share boundary with India : China, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh.
  • Tributary: A river or stream which contributes its water to a main river by discharging it into main river from either side.

India is marked by a diversity of physical features such as mountains, plateaus, plains, coasts and islands.


  • The northern most of Himalayas are the Greater Himalayas or Himadri. Some of the world’s highest peaks are in this range.
  • The middle Himalayas or the Himachal has some of the beautiful hill stations.
  • The southern part of the Himalayas are the Lesser Himalayas or the Shiwaliks.

Northern Plains:

  • These lie to the south of the Himalayas.
  • These are formed by the alluvial deposits laid down by the rivers – the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra and their tributaries.

Great Indian Desert:

  • In the western part of India lies the Great Indian desert.
  • It is a dry, hot and sandy stretch of land.

Peninsular plateau:

  • To the south of northern plains lies the Peninsular plateau. It is triangular in shape.
  • Aravali hills, one of the oldest ranges of the world, border it on the north-west side.
  • The Vindhyas and the Satpuras are the important ranges.
  • The rivers Narmada and Tapi flow through these ranges. These are the west flowing rivers.
  • The Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats border the plateau.
  • The Western Ghats are almost continuous and the Eastern Ghats are broken and uneven.
  • To the west of the Western Ghats and the East of the Eastern Ghats lie the Coastal plains.


  • Two groups of islands also form part of India.
  • Lakshadweep Islands are located in the Arabian Sea.
  • The Andaman and the Nicobar islands lie to the southeast of the Indian mainland in the Bay of Bengal.


  • The landforms are a result of two processes. The first, or the internal process leads to the upliftment and sinking of the earth’s surface at several places. The second, or the external process is the continuous wearing down and rebuilding of the land surface.
  • The wearing away of the earth’s surface is called erosion. The surface is being lowered by the process of erosion and rebuilt by the process of deposition.
  • The different landforms can be broadly grouped as mountains, plateaus and plains depending on elevation and slope.
  • A hill is a land surface that rises higher than the surrounding area. Generally, a steep hill with an elevation of more than 600 meters is termed as a mountain.


  • A mountain is any natural elevation of the earth surface. The mountains may have a small summit and a broad base. The range is a line of mountains.
  • In some mountains, there are permanently frozen rivers of ice. They are called glaciers.
  • Examples are the Himalayan mountain ranges of Asia, the Alps of Europe and the Andes of South America.
  • The various types of mountains are fold mountains, block mountains and Volcanic mountains.
  • The Block mountains are created when large areas are broken and displace vertically. The uplifted blocks are called Horsts and the lowered blocks are called Graben.
  • The Volcanic mountains are formed due to the volcanic activity.


  • A Plateau is an elevated flat land. It is a flat topped table land standing above the surrounding area. Example: Deccan Plateau of India.
  • Tibet Plateau is the highest plateau in the world with a height of 4,000 to 6,000 mts above the mean sea level.
  • And they are rich in minerals. Example: Chotanagpur plateau of India.
  • Generally the Plateaus are not continuous and are broken and hence there could be lot of waterfalls seen over plateaus. Example: Jog falls in Karnataka.


  • These are large stretches of flat land and usually they are not greater than 200 mts above the mean sea level.
  • Most of the plains are formed by the eroded materials bring forth by the rivers. And hence they are very fertile. Example: Yangtze plains in China.
  • Construction of transport network is very easy and thus these plains are the very highly populated areas of the world.


  • The solid portion of the earth on which we live is called the Lithosphere. The word Litho is originated from the Greek language, Lithos meaning stone.
  • The gaseous layers that surround the earth, is the Atmosphere. The word Atmos is originated from the Greek language, meaning Vapor.
  • The area covered by water is called the Hydrosphere, and it comprises water in all its forms. The word Hudor is originated from the Greek language, meaning Water.
  • The Biosphere is the narrow zone where the land, water and air are found together and it contains all forms of life. The word Bios is originated from the Greek language, meaning Life.


  • The lithosphere comprises the rocks of the earth’s crust and the thin layers of soil that contain nutrient elements which sustain organisms.
  • There are two main division of the earth’s surface. The large landmasses are known as the continents and the huge water bodies are called the ocean basins.
  • The highest mountain peak Mt. Everest is 8,848 metres above the sea level. The greatest depth of 11,022 meters is recorded at Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean.


  • There are 7 major continents. They are Asia, Europe, Africa, North America, South America, Australia and Antarctica. The greater part of the land mass lies in the Northern Hemisphere.
  • Asia is the largest continent. It covers about 1/3rd of the total land area of the earth. It is in the Eastern Hemisphere. The Tropic of Cancer passes through the Continent. Asia is separated from the Europe by the Ural mountains on the west.
  • Europe lies to the west of Asia. The Arctic circle passes through it. It is bound by water bodies on 3 sides.
  • Africa is the second largest continent after Asia. The Equator or 0o latitude runs almost through the middle of the continent. A large part of it lies in the N. Hemisphere. It is the only continent through which the Tropic of Cancer, the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn The Sahara desert, the world’s largest hot desert, is located in Africa. It is bound on all sides by oceans and seas.
  • North America is the third largest continent of the world. It is linked to South America by a very narrow strip of land called the Isthmus of Panama. The continent completely lies in the Northern and Western Hemisphere. Three oceans surround this continent.

# Isthmus – A narrow strip of land joining two landmasses.

# Strait – A strait is a narrow passage of water connecting two large water bodies like seas and oceans.

  • South America lies mostly in Southern Hemisphere. The Andes, world’s longest mountain range runs through its length from north to south. It has the world’s largest river, the Amazon.
  • Australia is the smallest continent that lies entirely in the Southern Hemisphere. It is an island continent.
  • Antarctica, completely in the Southern Hemisphere, is a huge continent. The South pole lies almost at the centre of this continent. The research stations of India in Antarctica are Maitri and Dakshin Gangotri.


Oceans: Oceans are the major part of hydrosphere.

  • The oceans are always moving. The three chief movements of ocean waters are the waves, the tides and the ocean currents.
  • The four major oceans are the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean and the Arctic Ocean, in order of their size.
  • The Pacific ocean is spread over one-third of the earth. Asia, Australia, North and South Americas surround it.
  • The Atlantic ocean is ‘S’ shaped. It is flanked by the North and South Americas on the western side, and Europe and Africa on the eastern side. The coastline of Atlantic ocean is highly intended. This irregular and indented coastline provides ideal location for natural harbors and ports. From the point of view of commerce, it is the busiest ocean.
  • The Indian ocean is almost triangular in shape. In the North, it is bound by Asia, in the west by Africa and in the east by Australia.
  • The Arctic ocean is located within the Arctic Circle and surrounds the North Pole. It is connected with the Pacific Ocean by a narrow stretch of shallow water known as Bering Strait. It is bound by northern coasts of North America and Eurasia.


  • The atmosphere extends up to a height of about 1,600 kms. The atmosphere is divided into five layers based on composition, temperature and other properties.
  • These layers starting from earth’s surface are called the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere, the thermosphere and the exosphere.
  • The density of the atmosphere varies with height. It is maximum at the sea level and decreases rapidly as we go up. The temperature also decreases as we go upwards. The pressure also varies from place to place.
  • Moving air is known as wind.

Biosphere – the Domain of Life:

  • The organisms in the biosphere may broadly be divided into the plant kingdom and the animal kingdom. The three domains of the earth interact with each other and affect each other in some way or the other.


  • A MAP is a representation or a drawing of the earth’s surface or a part of it drawn on a flat surface according to a scale. Maps are of different types.
  • Physical maps : Maps showing natural features of the earth such as mountains, plateaus, plains, rivers, oceans etc. are called physical or relief maps.
  • Political maps: Maps showing cities, towns and villages, and different countries and states of the world with their boundaries are called political maps.
  • Thematic maps: Some maps focus on specific information; such as road maps, rainfall maps, maps showing distribution of forests, industries etc. are known as thematic maps.
  • There are three components of maps – distance, direction and symbol.
  • A Scale is the ratio between the actual distance on the ground and the distance shown on the map.
  • When large areas like continents or countries are to be shown on a paper, then small scale is used. It is called a small scale map.
  • When a small area like village or town is to be shown on a paper, then large scale is used. It is called a large scale map.

#     Large scale maps give more information than small scale maps.

  • The directions on the map are North, South, East and West. They are called Cardinal points. The direction of a place can be found out with the help of a
  • Conventional symbols are used to show different features on a map.
  • A Sketch is a rough drawing which is drawn without a scale, and this is called a sketch map.
  • A plan is a drawing of a small area on a large scale. These are drawings drawn to a scale.

Beti Bachao Beti Padhao – Save Girl Child, Educate Girl Child

“An educated Girl will stay healthy, save money, build a business, empower her community, lift her country and change the world.”

Background: The current census (2011) data has revealed a declining trend in Child Sex Ratio (CSR) between 0-6 years with an all time low of 919. India has not improved gender indicators especially related to Sex Ratio and CSR. The issue of declining CSR is a major indicator of women disempowerment as it begins before birth, manifests in gender biased sex selection and elimination and continues in various forms of discrimination towards girl child after birth in fulfilling her health, nutrition and education needs. The practice of sex selective elimination of the female fetus due to easy availability and affordability of medical diagnostic tools has been a critical influencer of the skewed sex ratio. Further, there is little doubt that strong socio-cultural and religious biases, preferences for sons in almost all Indian communities has also shaped societal attitudes towards girls.

Given the complexity of the issue, there is a need for coordinated and multi sectoral convergent action including Information Education and Communication (IEC) and Behavior Change Communication (BCC) campaigns and community mobilization initiatives towards improving CSR, promoting the value of the girl and highlighting the importance of empowering her with education. A campaign like the Beti Bachao Beti Padhao can not only draw the attention of the masses to a grave concern like declining CSR but also lead to change the mindsets towards empowering daughters through education.

Beti Bachao Beti Padhao: Realizing the gravity of the issue, it was highlighted in the Address to the Joint Session of the Parliament by the President in June, 2014 and thereafter, in the Budget speech of the Government. Since coordinated and convergent efforts are needed to ensure survival, protection and empowerment of the girl child, Government has announced Beti Bacho Beti Padhao initiative. This has been launched by the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi at Panipat, Haryana on Jan 22, 2015. The Government has decided that the Ministry of Women and Child Development shall be the Nodal Ministry for implementing this joint Scheme which will be implemented in collaboration with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and Ministry of Human Resource Development.


The objectives of this initiative are:

  • Prevention of gender biased sex selective elimination
  • Ensuring survival and protection of the girl child
  • Ensuring education and participation of the girl child

Critical Components:

The Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP) initiative has two major components.

(i) Media Campaign and

(ii) Multi-sectoral action in 100 selected districts (as a pilot) with adverse CSR, covering all States and UTs

  • Effective implementation of Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act (PCPNDT) is a critical and non-negotiable aspect of this scheme.
  • Empowering the girl child through education and creating an enabling environment that provides equal access to education, health, employment/skill development etc. is another critical component.
  • Enhancing the value of the girl child through awareness generation is the other critical component. The Media Campaign, geared towards achieving this, would underline the need to use communication that encourages equal value of the girls and emphasize that she is not a liability.
  • Gender Equality: BBBP also highlights the need for gender equality enshrined in the Constitution of India and brings out how neglect of girls and discrimination throughout her life cycle leads to an unequal status for the girls. It also aims to break myths about roles of men and women in society so that negative attitudes and behaviors steeped in patriarchy changed.

Make in India – Making India a global manufacturing hub

The program ‘Make in India’, a major national initiative which focuses on making India a global manufacturing hub,  was launched by the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi on 25th September, 2014, at an event in Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi.

Speaking to more than 500 top global CEOs along with captains of Indian industry at the launch ceremony, Prime Minister termed ‘Make in India’ initiative a lion step to usher in increased manufacturing in the country, which will ultimately generate more employment opportunities for the poor and give greater purchasing power to their hands.

Key thrust of the program would be on cutting down in delays in manufacturing projects clearance, develop adequate infrastructure and make it easier for companies to do business in India. The 25 key sectors identified under the program include automobiles, auto components, bio-technology, chemicals, defence manufacturing, electronic systems, food processing, leather, mining, oil&gas, ports, railways and textiles.

The national program aims at time-bound project clearances through a single online portal which will be further supported by the eight-member team dedicated to answering investor queries within 48 hours and addressing key issues including labor laws, skill development and infrastructure.

It also aims to transform the economy from the services-driven growth model to labor-intensive manufacturing-driven growth. This will in turn help in producing jobs for over ten million people, who join the workforce every year.

Objective of the campaign:

The objective of the mega program is to ensure that manufacturing sector which contributes around 15% of the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is increased to 25% in next few years.

The objective of the campaign is also to get manufacturing sector to grow over 100% on a sustainable basis over a long run.

Features of the program:

  • The government will look into all regulatory processes to ease the burden of investors.
  • A dedicated cell has been created to answer all the queries from Business entities through a freshly created web portal.
  • While an exhaustive set of Frequently Answered Questions on this portal will facilitate investors find instant answers to their general queries, the back-end support team of the portal would answer queries in less than 72 hours.
  • The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) and industry lobby the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) have jointly started an eight member expert panel to deal with queries and concerns of the investors. They will clarify Indian policies to the investors and suggest reforms to the central and state governments.
  • All central government services are being integrated with an e-Biz single window online portal.
  • States have been suggested to introduce self-certification.
  • The Union Ministry of Home Affairs has been asked to give all security clearances to investment proposals within three months.
  • An advisory has been sent to all departments/state governments to simplify and rationalize regulatory atmosphere which includes online filing of all returns in a unified form.

Steps being taken:

  • Cutting down on procedural delay.
    • To make India an investment hub, the first and foremost important step would be to create efficient administrative machinery which would cut down on delays in project clearances.
    • Delay in getting regulatory clearances lead to rise in cost of production. The quicker the government addresses these challenges its better for the industry to set up facilities in the country.
    • For providing better infrastructure for the industry, there has been a big constraint in terms of land acquisition. Often land acquisition for the industrial purpose run into trouble at the local level.
  • Tax sops and focus on innovation.
    • Economists are urging for providing tax concessions to any industry which would set up manufacturing facility in the country.
    • India should be more focused towards novelty and innovation for the sectors identified and integration with the country’s premier institute for carrying out research and development. This would be critical to the success of the make in India program.
    • The country’s huge small and medium-sized industries which could play a big role in making the country take the next big leap in manufacturing.
  • Skill development and thrust on education
    • The country needs to focus on quality education not just skill development.
    • In the emerging economy, people will need to continuously learn new skills to meet the economy’s changing requirements.
    • The creation of Labor Market information system initiated by the National Skill Development Agency (NSDA) should help industry sourcing their manpower requirement.
  • Reforms in the labor laws.
    • Besides the skill development, labor law flexibility is a key element for the success of this campaign for increasing manufacturing in the country.
    • Labor law flexibility does not imply ‘hire and fire’ policy, it’s about providing a sound social safety net to workers.
    • India has some of the most comprehensive labor laws at the same time a large parts of working population do not have access to social security net.
    • The big challenge for ‘Make in India’ would face constant comparison with China’s ‘Made in China’ campaign. China launched the campaign at the same day as India seeking to retain its manufacturing prowess. India should constantly keep up its strength so as to compare China’s supremacy in the manufacturing sector.
    • There is a need for some fundamental changes in Indian economy so that the country emerges as global manufacturing base.
  • Demographic Dividend.
    • The demographic potential offers India and its growing economy an edge that economists believe could add a significant 2% to the GDP growth rate annually.
    • India is the only country in the world which offers the unique combination of democracy, demography, and demand from a rising middle class.
  • Besides, the campaign would ensure closer centre and state relations for promoting India as a global manufacturing hub.

Progress so far…

Among the many campaigns launched by Shri Narendra Modi, the Prime Minister of India, perhaps the most high-profile has been the Make in India campaign.

  • The government has already taken important steps to improve the regulatory climate, to enable manufacturing and to open Foreign Direct investment (FDI) in key sectors, i.e., the three pillars to bring about a positive transformation in manufacturing.
  • Important sectors like defence production, civil construction and railways have been opened to greater foreign investment by the government.
  • The process of applying for industrial licenses has been greatly simplified and made online.
  • Manufacturing units, except for those producing hazardous materials, can now do a great deal of self-certification, thereby reducing the ambit of government inspectors in the private manufacturing sector.
  • Much of the interface between entrepreneurs and the government, both central and state, has been made online.
  • Important economic structural reforms have been put in place.
    • Another reform: the government has put in place a new gas pricing policy in October 2014 which specifies that price notification will occur once in six months based on international prices of gas, thereby reducing predictability into this important price which affects almost every sector of the economy.
    • Another crucial reform which will also improve the availability of power within India is the establishment of a simplified system for auctioning coal mines online, which will introduce transparency into this sector, a most important one for power generation in India and which will, therefore, improve the economy as a whole.
  • Results of these reforms:
    • The index of industrial production has grown rapidly, while inflation has declined.
    • The stock market index is establishing new records every day, attesting to the large investments coming into, and to the enhanced industrial and economic activity in, India.
    • Both imports and exports have increased appreciably over the last few months.
    • The Indian currency remains stable.

“A major new national program. Designed to facilitate investment. Foster innovation. Enhance skill development. Protect intellectual property. And build best-in class manufacturing infrastructure. There’s never been a better time to make in India.”

Through this campaign, the Indian Government aims to clear the daunting image of complex rules and bureaucratic red tape of Indian administration. It will facilitate the world investors to foster their investment decisions and will also facilitate in realizing the aim of liberalized economy.

Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana (PMJDY)

Financial Inclusion is one of the top most priorities of the Government. Exclusion of a large number of people from any access to financial services inhibits the growth of our country. There is evidence that financial inclusion is crucial to poverty reduction.

PMJDY is National Mission for Financial Inclusion encompassing an integrated approach to bring about comprehensive financial inclusion of all the households in the country. The scheme has been launched by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi on 28th August, 2014.


The main objective of the Yojana is to ensure universal access to banking facilities with at least one basic banking account for every household. Objective of PMJDY is ensuring access to various financial services like availability of basic savings bank account, access to need based credit, remittances facility, insurance and pension to the excluded sections i.e. weaker sections and low income groups. This deep penetration at affordable cost is possible only with effective use of technology.

PMJDY focuses on coverage of households as against the earlier plan which focused on coverage of villages. It focuses on coverage of rural as well as urban areas. The earlier Financial Inclusion Plan (Swabhimaan) targeted only villages above 2000 population while under PMJDY whole country is to be covered by extending banking facilities in each Sub-Service area consisting of 1000-1500 households such that facility is available to all within a reasonable distance, say about 5 km.

The technological issues like poor connectivity, on-line transactions will be addressed. Mobile transactions through telecom operators and their established centers as Cash Out Points are also planned to be used for Financial Inclusion under the Scheme.

Jan Dhan Yojana will be implemented in two phases.

Phase-I from 15th August 2014 to 14th August 2015:

  • Universal access to banking facilities for all households across the country through a bank branch or a fixed point Business Correspondents (BC) within a reasonable distance.
  • To cover all households with atleast one Basic Banking Account with RuPay Debit card having inbuilt accident insurance cover of Rs.1 lakh. Further an overdraft facility upto Rs.5000 will also be permitted to Adhaar enabled accounts after satisfactory operation in the account for 6 months.
  • Financial literacy program which aims to take financial literacy upto village level
  • The mission also envisages expansion of Direct Benefit Transfer under various Government Schemes through bank accounts of the beneficiaries of.
  • The issuance of Kisan Credit Card (KCC) as RuPay Kisan Card is also proposed to be covered under the plan.

Phase-II from 15th August, 2015 to 14th August, 2018.

  • Providing micro-insurance to the people.
  • Unorganized sector Pension schemes like Swavalamban through the Business correspondents.

The major shift in this program is that households are being targeted instead of villages as targeted earlier. Moreover both rural and urban areas are being covered this time as against only rural areas targeted earlier. The present plan pursues digital financial inclusion with special emphasis on monitoring by a Mission headed by the financial Minister.

The Yojana is being monitored in a mission mode with the Finance Minister being the Head of the Mission. It is estimated to cover 7.50 crore households with at least one account under the Yojana and also a large number of dormant accounts would be activated. Electronic transfer of subsidies under various schemes of Government would be enabled.