VII GEO GIST – HUMAN ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS. THE TROPICAL AND THE SUBTROPICAL REGIONS

Life in the Amazon basin:

  • The tropical region lies very close to the equator; between 10o N and 10o So, it is referred to as the equatorial region.
  • The place where a river flows into another body of water is called the river’s mouth.
  • The Amazon river basin drains portions of Brazil, parts of Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Columbia and a small part of Venezuela.

# Tributaries: These are small rivers that join the main river. The main river along with all its tributaries that drain an area forms a river basin or the catchment area. The Amazon basin is the largest river basin in the world.

Climate:

  • Is characterized by hot and wet climate throughout the year.
  • Both days and nights are almost equally hot and humid.

Rainforests:

  • As it rains heavily in this region, thick forests grow.
  • This region is very rich in fauna. Birds such as toucans, humming birds, birds of paradise and bills are common here. Animals like monkeys, sloth and ant-eating tapirs are found here.
  • Reptiles like Anaconda, boa constrictor are some of the species.

People of the rain forests:

  • People grow most of their food in small areas after clearing some trees in the forest.
  • While men hunt and fish along the rivers, women take care of the crops. They grow mainly tapioca, pineapple and sweet potato.
  • They practice slash and burn agriculture. It is a way of cultivating land where farmers clear a piece of land by slashing or cutting down trees and bushes. These are then burnt, which releases the nutrients into the soil.
  • The staple food of these people is manioc, also known as cassava that grows under the ground like the potato.
  • Cash crops like coffee, maize and cocoa are also grown.
  • In 1970, the Trans Amazon highway made all parts of the rainforest accessible.

Life in the Ganga – Brahmaputra Basin:

  • The basin lies in the sub-tropical region that is situated between 10o N to 30o N latitudes.
  • The tributaries of the River Ganga like the Ghaghra, the Son, the Chambal, the Gandak, the Kosi and the tributaries of Brahmaputra drain it.
  • The plains of the Ganga and the Brahmaputra, the mountains and the foothills of the Himalayas and the Sunderbans delta are the main features of this basin.
  • The area is dominated by monsoon climate.
  • The environment plays a dominant role in the distribution of the population.
  • The density of the population in the plains is very high.

# Population Density: It is the number of persons that live in one sq.km of area.

  • The main crop is paddy.
  • Wheat, maize, sorghum, gram and millets are the other crops that are grown.
  • Cash crops like sugarcane and jute are also grown.
  • In West Bengal and Assam, tea is grown in plantations.
  • Silk is produced through the cultivation of silk worms in parts of Bihar and Assam.
  • There is a variety of wildlife in the basin. Elephants, deers, tigers and monkeys are common.
  • The one-horned rhinoceros is found in the Brahmaputra plain.
  • In the delta area, Bengal tiger, crocodiles and alligator are found.
  • In the fresh waters of River Ganga, and River Brahmaputra, a variety of dolphin locally called Susu (also called blind dolphin) is found.
  • Kolkata is an important port on the River Hooghly.
  • Tourism is another important activity of the basin.
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