- India is bounded by the Himalayas in the North, the Arabian Sea in the west, the Bay of Bengal in the East and the Indian Ocean in the south.
- Peninsula : Peninsula is a piece of land which is surrounded by water on three sides of it.
- Area of India – 3.28 million square kilometers
- The North South extent of India is 3,200 kms
- The East West extent of India is 2,900 kms
- The Tropic of cancer (23 1/20N) passes through the middle of India.
- From north to south, the mainland extends between 804’ N and 3706’N latitudes.
- From west to east, the mainland extends between 6807’ E and 97025’E longitudes.
- The longitude 82030’E is called the Indian Standard Time or the Standard Meridian of India.
- Seven countries share boundary with India : China, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh.
- Tributary: A river or stream which contributes its water to a main river by discharging it into main river from either side.
India is marked by a diversity of physical features such as mountains, plateaus, plains, coasts and islands.
- The northern most of Himalayas are the Greater Himalayas or Himadri. Some of the world’s highest peaks are in this range.
- The middle Himalayas or the Himachal has some of the beautiful hill stations.
- The southern part of the Himalayas are the Lesser Himalayas or the Shiwaliks.
- These lie to the south of the Himalayas.
- These are formed by the alluvial deposits laid down by the rivers – the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra and their tributaries.
Great Indian Desert:
- In the western part of India lies the Great Indian desert.
- It is a dry, hot and sandy stretch of land.
- To the south of northern plains lies the Peninsular plateau. It is triangular in shape.
- Aravali hills, one of the oldest ranges of the world, border it on the north-west side.
- The Vindhyas and the Satpuras are the important ranges.
- The rivers Narmada and Tapi flow through these ranges. These are the west flowing rivers.
- The Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats border the plateau.
- The Western Ghats are almost continuous and the Eastern Ghats are broken and uneven.
- To the west of the Western Ghats and the East of the Eastern Ghats lie the Coastal plains.
- Two groups of islands also form part of India.
- Lakshadweep Islands are located in the Arabian Sea.
- The Andaman and the Nicobar islands lie to the southeast of the Indian mainland in the Bay of Bengal.