VI GEO GIST – INDIA : CLIMATE, VEGETATION AND CLIMATE

  • Weather is about day to day changes in the atmosphere. It includes changes in temperature, rainfall and sunshine.

Broadly, the major seasons recognized in India are:

  • Cold Weather Season (Winter) December to February
  • Hot Weather Season (Summer) March to May
  • South West Monsoon Season (Rainy) June to September
  • Season of Retreating Monsoon (Autumn) October and November.

# Hot and dry winds called Loo blow during the day in the Hot Weather Season.

South West Monsoon Season:

  • This season is marked by the onset and advance of monsoon.
  • The winds blow from the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea towards the land. They carry moisture with them.
  • When these winds strike the mountain barriers, rainfall occurs.

Season of Retreating Monsoons or Autumn:

  • Winds move backward from the mainland to the Bay of Bengal.
  • The southern parts of India, particularly Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh receive rainfall in this season.

Climate: Climate is about the average weather condition, which have been measured over many years.

  • The climate of India has broadly been described as Monsoon type.
  • Due to India’s location in the tropical region, most of the rain is brought by monsoon winds.

INDIA : CLIMATE, VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE

  • The climate of a place is affected by its location, altitude, distance from the sea, and relief.
  • Due to varied climatic conditions, India has a wide range of natural vegetation.

Vegetation of India can be divided into five types. They are:

  • Tropical Evergreen Forests or Tropical Rain Forest: They occur in the areas which receive heavy rainfall. Important trees found in these forests are Mahagony, ebony and rosewood.
  • Tropical Deciduous Forests or Monsoon Forests: Important trees of these forests are sal, teak, peepal, neem and shisham.
  • Thorny bushes: Plants are like Cactus, Khair, Babool and Keekar.
  • Mountain Vegetation: The trees are coniferous having broad bases and conical tops. Important species of trees are the pine, chir and deodar.
  • Mangrove forests: These are grown in the saline water. Example: Sunderbans.

Wildlife:

  • Gir forest in Gujarat is the home of Asiatic lions.
  • Forests of Assam are the home of the elephants and one-horned rhinoceroses.
  • Camels and wild asses are found in the Great Indian desert and the Rann of Kuchch respectively.
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