Science & Technology

Frequency Modulation:

Method of broadcasting electric signals that cannot travel very far on their own. In this method, the signal is imposed or ‘imprinted’ on a carrier wave whose frequency increases or diminishes with the frequency of the signal. FM transmission operates in 88 to 108 mega hertz frequency band, and is less susceptible to electromagnetic interference than Amplitude modulation.

Binary Chemical Weapons:

A BCW or munition is a chemical weapon in which chemical substances, held in separate containers, react when mixed or combined as a result of being fired, launched, or otherwise initiated to produce a chemical agent. The term binary refers only to the storage and deployment method used, not to the chemical structure of the substance.

Heavy water and its uses:

Heavy water (D2O), also called deuterium oxide, water composed of deuterium, the hydrogen isotope with a mass double that of ordinary hydrogen, and oxygen.


As a neutron moderator in nuclear reactors.

For the preparation of deuterium.

As a tracer compound for studying various reaction mechanisms and.

Synthetic Seeds:

Synthetic seeds are defined as artificially encapsulated somatic embryos, shoot buds, cell aggregates, or any other tissue that can be used for sowing as a seed and that possess the ability to convert into a plant under in vitro or ex vitro conditions and that retain this potential also after storage.

VIKAS engine:

VIKAS engine/UH25 is a liquid fuelled rocket engine indigenously developed by ISRO, India. It is used in the PSLV and GSLV vehicles for space launching satellites. Vikas engines are employed in the second stage of India’s PSLV as well as the second and the four strap-on stages of the GSLV. The engine uses UH25 (a mixture of unsymmetrical di-methyl hydrazine and hydrazine hydrate) as fuel and nitrogen tetroxide as oxidizer with maximum thrust of about 725 kN.


Electronic spamming is the use of electronic messaging systems to send unsolicited messages (spam), especially advertising. As well as sending messages repeatedly on the same site. While the most widely recognized form of spam is e-mail spam, the term is applied to similar abuses in other media.


An Exabyte (EB) is a large unit of computer data storage, two to the sixtieth power bytes. The prefix exa means one billion billion, or one quintillion, which is a decimal term. Two to the sixtieth power is actually 1,152,921,504,606,846,976 bytes in decimal, or somewhat over a quintillion (or ten to the eighteenth power) bytes. It is common to say that an Exabyte is approximately one quintillion bytes. In decimal terms, an Exabyte is a billion gigabytes.

Saturn’s Titan:

Titan (Ty-tun) is the fifteenth of Saturn’s moons and is the largest. It is also the second largest moon in the solar system. Titan was named after the ancient race of giants in Greek Mythology. Titan was discovered in 1665 by the Dutch astronomer Christian Huygens. Titan was once thought to be the largest planet in the Solar system, but recent discoveries have shown that the Moon’s thick atmosphere hides a smaller rocky surface that is slightly smaller than Jupiter’s moon, Ganymede. Though it is only the second largest moon in the Solar System, it is still larger than the planets Mercury and Pluto.


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