Science & Technology – Trivia

Anabolic Steroids:

“Anabolic steroids” is the familiar name for synthetic variants of the male sex hormone testosterone. The proper term for these compounds is anabolic – androgenic steroids (AAS) – “anabolic” referring to muscle – building and “androgenic” referring to increased male sexual characteristics.

Anabolic steroids can be legally prescribed to treat conditions resulting from steroid hormone deficiency, such as delayed puberty, as well as diseases that result in loss of lean muscle mass, such as cancer and AIDS. But some athletes, body builders, and other abuse these drugs in an attempt to enhance performance and/or improve their physical appearance.

Some commonly used anabolic steroids are Nandrolone, Boldenone.

Quartz watches:

Quartz watches are more accurate than pendulum clocks. Quartz watches work in a very different way to pendulum clocks and ordinary watches. They still have gears inside them to count the seconds, minutes, and hours and sweep the hands around the clockface. But the gears are regulated by a tiny crystal of quartz instead of a swinging pendulum or a moving balance wheel. Gravity doesn’t figure in the workings at all.

Perhaps the most interesting thing about quartz is that it’s piezoelectric. That means if we squeeze a quartz crystal, it generates a tiny electric current. The opposite is also true. If we pass electricity through quartz, it vibrates at a precise frequency (it shakes an exact number of times each second). Inside a quartz clock or watch, the battery sends electricity to the quartz crystal through an electronic circuit. The quartz crystal oscillates at a precise frequency: exactly 32768 times each second. The circuit counts the number of vibrations and uses them to generate regular electric pulses, one per second. These pulses can either power an LCD display or they can drive a small electric motor, turning gear wheels that spin the clock’s second, minute, and hour hands.

Ultrasound or Sonography:

Ultrasound is a type of imaging. It uses high-frequency sound waves to look at organs and structures inside the body. Health care professionals use it to view the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, liver, and other organs. During pregnancy, doctors use ultrasound to view the fetus. Unlike x-rays, ultrasound does not expose you to radiation.

A device called a transducer is moved over part of the human body. The transducer sends out sound waves, which bounce off the tissues inside the body. The transducer also captures the waves that bounce back. The ultrasound machine creates images from the sound waves.

Computer Virus:

A computer virus is a program written to enter your computer systems surreptitiously and “infect” it by installing or modifying files or establishing itself in memory. Some viruses are benign and won’t harm the systems, while others are destructive and can damage or destroy the data. By installing an antivirus program and keeping it updated can be a remedy for this.

Stealth aircraft:

Are designed to avoid detection using a variety of advanced technologies that reduce reflection/emission of radar, infrared, visible light, radio-frequency spectrum, and audio, collectively known as stealth technology.

Stealth technology techniques:

The airplane can be shaped so that any radar signals it reflects are reflected away from the radar equipment. Hence, a stealth aircraft is made up of completely flat surfaces and very sharp edges.

The airplane can be covered in materials that absorb radar signals.

Karimnagar experiment for application of S&T for regional development:

In 1972, CSIR launched an experiment on application of S&T for rural development with emphasis on rural industrialization in the Karimnagar district of Andhra Pradesh. This model helped in setting up based on CSIR technologies and pertaining to speciality paper (275 kg/day), straw board (1t/day), modern rice mill (500 kg/hr), tanning unit (1t/day), a general engineering workshop and building material manufacture. The achievements were varied in magnitude. They provided important leads and had pointed out the pitfalls. The experiences gained from this experiment, however, brought out the general feasibility and desirability of replication of such a model in backward areas.

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