E-government: Following the World Bank/UNDP definition, E-government can be defined as the application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) – particularly Internet-based information technology – by government agencies to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, transparency and accountability of government.

  • E-government aims to make the interaction between government and citizens, government and business enterprises and inter-agency relationships more friendly, convenient, transparent and inexpensive.

E-governance: is about the use of ICT to support the guiding and steering of an organization – be it a private agency or a civil society organization to achieve its goals. In the political context, E-governance is about the use of ICT to steer society and promote public interest.

Constraints and Facilitators of ICT in e-governance:


  • Inadequacy or lack of fund provision.
  • Poor infrastructure
  • Insufficient or non-existent skilled personnel
  • Bureaucratic tendencies (rule-following as against work achievement)
  • Dominance of unhelpful, narrow, self-interested politics
  • Absence of ICT departments and mobility of ICT champions
  • Lack on an appropriate legal and regulatory framework
  • Poor data systems maintenance
  • Lack of staff motivation
  • Lack of a coordinated approach to organizational development.


  • Government and political support
  • ICT champions within the organization
  • E-government strategy formulated by the top management
  • Internal pressure and rising user expectations
  • External pressure, technological change and modernization drive.
  • Availability of trained staff within the organization
  • Easy engagement of outside consultants
  • Positive attitudes toward ICT as a real aid to organizational development
  • Internal source of fund
  • ‘Good practice’ development including local improvisations and design divisibility

Dimensions of ICT in e-governance:

  • Intra-organizational connectivity or within organization networking
  • Connectivity between government and citizen
  • Government to business connectivity
  • Government to employee connectivity
  • Government to government connectivity.

Benefits of ICT in governance:

  • Organizational efficiency enhancement
  • Improved services delivery – better service, more convenient, more reliable and lower cost
  • Greater participation of citizens in government affairs
  • Lower transaction costs
  • Helpful in building trust between government and citizen
  • Providing greater people’s access to government information
  • Making government more accountable by making the operations more transparent
  • Enhanced control of fraud and reduction of corruption
  • Providing wider development opportunities, especially benefiting rural and traditionally underserved communities and marginalized sections of society.
  • Challenging existing ways of doing work
  • Creating a general climate of organization-wide reform
  • Harnessing organizational energy/resources through networking or organizational synergy.

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