E-government: Following the World Bank/UNDP definition, E-government can be defined as the application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) – particularly Internet-based information technology – by government agencies to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, transparency and accountability of government.
- E-government aims to make the interaction between government and citizens, government and business enterprises and inter-agency relationships more friendly, convenient, transparent and inexpensive.
E-governance: is about the use of ICT to support the guiding and steering of an organization – be it a private agency or a civil society organization to achieve its goals. In the political context, E-governance is about the use of ICT to steer society and promote public interest.
Constraints and Facilitators of ICT in e-governance:
- Inadequacy or lack of fund provision.
- Poor infrastructure
- Insufficient or non-existent skilled personnel
- Bureaucratic tendencies (rule-following as against work achievement)
- Dominance of unhelpful, narrow, self-interested politics
- Absence of ICT departments and mobility of ICT champions
- Lack on an appropriate legal and regulatory framework
- Poor data systems maintenance
- Lack of staff motivation
- Lack of a coordinated approach to organizational development.
- Government and political support
- ICT champions within the organization
- E-government strategy formulated by the top management
- Internal pressure and rising user expectations
- External pressure, technological change and modernization drive.
- Availability of trained staff within the organization
- Easy engagement of outside consultants
- Positive attitudes toward ICT as a real aid to organizational development
- Internal source of fund
- ‘Good practice’ development including local improvisations and design divisibility
Dimensions of ICT in e-governance:
- Intra-organizational connectivity or within organization networking
- Connectivity between government and citizen
- Government to business connectivity
- Government to employee connectivity
- Government to government connectivity.
Benefits of ICT in governance:
- Organizational efficiency enhancement
- Improved services delivery – better service, more convenient, more reliable and lower cost
- Greater participation of citizens in government affairs
- Lower transaction costs
- Helpful in building trust between government and citizen
- Providing greater people’s access to government information
- Making government more accountable by making the operations more transparent
- Enhanced control of fraud and reduction of corruption
- Providing wider development opportunities, especially benefiting rural and traditionally underserved communities and marginalized sections of society.
- Challenging existing ways of doing work
- Creating a general climate of organization-wide reform
- Harnessing organizational energy/resources through networking or organizational synergy.