- It is a genuinely democracy – intensifying concept – to make public administration more open, transparent and accountable.
- “Governance is a more encompassing phenomenon than government. It embraces governmental institutions but it also subsumes informal, non-governmental mechanisms whereby those persons and organizations within its purview move ahead, satisfy their needs and fulfill their wants… Governance is thus a system of rule that is as dependent on inter-subjective meanings as on formally sanctioned constitution and charter… it is possible to conceive of governance without government – of regulatory mechanisms in a sphere of activity which function effectively even though they are not endowed with formal authority. -Rosenau
“The capacity to get things done without the legal competence to command that they be done.”
- Governance is more a network of multiple agencies and organizations than a fixed ‘government’ agency or department.
- Governance stands for establishment, operation and networking of social institutions. Concretely, it manifests itself in formal rules and regulations, decision-making procedures and programmatic activities that serve to define social practices.
- In 1989, the concept of ‘governance’ was for the first time highlighted in a World Bank document on Sub-Saharan Africa. By good governance was meant, at that time, sound development management.
- Four key dimensions identified in this context were:
- Public sector management
- Legal framework for development; and
- Information and transparency.
- Governance is defined as the manner in which power is exercised in the management of a country’s economic and social resources for development. – World Bank.
- Three distinct aspects are identified in the conceptualization of ‘governance’:
- The form of political regime (parliamentary or presidential, military or civilian or democratic)
- The process by which authority is exercised in the management of a country’s economic and social resources; and
- The capacity of governments to design, formulate and implement policies and in general, to discharge government functions.
- Governance is a continuum and not necessarily unidirectional.
- The key components of ‘governance’ were identified as:
- Legitimacy of government;
- Accountability of political and official elements of government;
- Respect for human rights and the Rule of Law (including individual and group rights and security, a legal framework for economic and social activity and participation).