- The Maoist Insurgency: India’s Gravest Internal Security Threat
- It explicitly calls for the state’s overthrow and directly targets its security forces, is repeatedly labeled by New Delhi as the country’s greatest internal security threat.
- The Maoists claim to fight on behalf of the destitute, landless communities endemic to these areas – many of them tribal groups long marginalized by New Delhi and rarely granted the rights guaranteed to them by India’s constitution.
- The movement originated in late 1960s, when a branch of the CPI-Marxist staged a peasant rebellion in the eastern village of Naxalbari.
- CPI-Maoist party – the largest and most lethal Naxalite outfit in the country.
- Extortion is a chief means of revenue-generation. (estimated that they extort more than $445 million) across India every year, mostly from iron and coal-mining companies, infrastructure project contractors, and sellers of tendu patta leaves used in cigarettes.
- Other points to profits from illicit narcotics cultivation and even to contributions from Indian corporations and NGOs.
- Arms-making facilities of Maoists have been discovered in towns in MP and Orissa, while “the presence and activities” of Maoists (including high-ranking ones) have been detected in Mumbai, New Delhi, Bangalore, and Chennai.
- Maoists owe their growing support to the form and brutality of the government counter insurgency campaign. This has effectively elevated a movement with local roots into one with a national presence. Ex: Salwa Judum, a Chattisgarh-based civilian militia that has been sponsored by New Delhi.
Current Trends in Naxalism:
- Increasing Militarization
- Urban spread and the Tactical United Front (TUF)
- Infrastructure Attacks